Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, abbreviated to CHOGM, is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. Every two years the meeting is held in a different member state, and is chaired by that nation's respective Prime Minister or President, who becomes the Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office. Recently, meetings have been attended by Queen Elizabeth II, who is the Head of the Commonwealth, although the Queen's formal appearance only began in 1997.[1]

The first CHOGM was held in 1971, and there have been twenty-one held in total: the most recent in Trinidad and Tobago in 2009. They are held once every two years, although this pattern has twice been interrupted. They are held around the Commonwealth, rotating by invitation amongst its members.

In the past, CHOGMs have attempted to orchestrate common policies on certain contentious issues and current events, with a special focus on issues affecting member nations. CHOGMs have discussed the continuation of apartheid rule in South Africa and how to end it, military coups in Pakistan and Fiji, and allegations of electoral fraud in Zimbabwe. Sometimes the member states agree on a common idea or solution, and release a joint statement declaring their opinion. More recently, beginning at the 1997 CHOGM, the meeting has had an official 'theme', set by the host nation, on which the primary discussions have been focused.[2]

List of meetings

Year Date Country City Retreat Chairperson
1971 14 January – 22 January Singapore Singapore N/A Lee Kuan Yew
1973 2 August – 10 August Canada Ottawa Mont-Tremblant Pierre Trudeau
1975 29 April – 6 May Jamaica Kingston Michael Manley
1977 8 June – 15 June United Kingdom London Gleneagles James Callaghan
1979 1 August – 7 August Zambia Lusaka Kenneth Kaunda
1981 30 September – 7 October Australia Melbourne Canberra Malcolm Fraser
1983 23 November – 29 November India New Delhi Fort Aguada Indira Gandhi
1985 16 October – 22 October Bahamas Nassau Lyford Cay Lynden Pindling
1986 3 August – 5 August United Kingdom London N/A Margaret Thatcher
1987 13 October – 17 October Canada Vancouver Okanagan Brian Mulroney
1989 18 October – 24 October Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Langkawi Mahathir bin Mohamad
1991 16 October – 21 October Zimbabwe Harare Victoria Falls Robert Mugabe
1993 21 October – 25 October Cyprus Limassol George Vasiliou
1995 10 November – 13 November New Zealand Auckland Millbrook Jim Bolger
1997 24 October – 27 October United Kingdom Edinburgh St Andrews Tony Blair
1999 12 November – 14 November South Africa Durban George Thabo Mbeki
2002 2 March – 5 March Australia Coolum N/A John Howard
2003 5 December – 8 December Nigeria Abuja Aso Rock Olusegun Obasanjo
2005 25 November – 27 November Malta Valletta Golden Sands, Mellieha Lawrence Gonzi
2007 23 November – 25 November Uganda Kampala Munyonyo Yoweri Museveni
2009 27 November – 29 November Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain Laventille Heights Patrick Manning
2011 28 October - 30 October Australia[11] Perth Kings Park Julia Gillard
2013 To Be Announced Sri Lanka[11] Hambantota[12] TBA TBA
2015 To Be Announced Mauritius[11] Port Louis TBA TBA